Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, most of Tanzania consists of plains and plateaus, mainly the large central high plateau. However, the land surface has a pronounced relief with Africa’s highest mountain, Kilimanjaro (5,895 m above sea level), and the world’s second deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika (1,443 m deep), as well as a large number of Horst-type mountains. This topography is mainly related to the East African rift system, which runs through the country in a north-south direction. It is divided into two distinct branches, the western deeper tomb, where, among other things. Lake Tanganyika is located, and the east which includes sinks and smaller lakes, e.g. Manyara and Lake Natron. However, the large Lake Victoria, whose southern part belongs to Tanzania, lies on the plateau between the two tombs and is shallow.
Mountains occur along the reefs; in the south from Lake Malawi to the northwest and northeast, and in the north, Kilimanjaro, Meru (4,566 m asl), and the Usambara Mountains to the northeast and Caldera Ngorongoro and Ol Doinyo Lengai, an active volcano. Volcanic material builds up some parts of the bedrock, while most of it consists of crystalline rocks formed during the Precambrian (older than 570 million years). Among the rivers are Rufiji, which drains most of southeastern Tanzania to the Indian Ocean, as well as Wami and Ruvu further north. The earth moons are brown, of volcanic origin and ferrous in moist areas and in the elevation area. Pod soles predominate on the central plateau and in the south. A coastal plain is spreading to the Indian Ocean with coral islands off, including. Zanzibar and Pemba.
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Tanzania has a tropical savannah climate and steppe climate on the high plateaus. The temperature varies very little during the year, but the daily variations are considerably larger. Dar-es Salaam on the coast has 26 °C as the annual average temperature and Tabora on the high plateau 23 °C.
Rain falls in the north for two periods; March – May and October – December, in the south during December – April. The quantities are 500–700 mm on the high plateaus, 1,000–1,900 mm on the coast and 750–2 250 mm on Lake Victoria.
Tanzania. has a wide variety of vegetation types, and the flora is very rich. Mangroves occur on the coast, mainly at the estuaries. Savannahs with tall grasses, hedges and scattered trees are mainly found in the northern parts.
Among the dominant trees are the genera Combreʹtum and Terminaʹlia and various acacias. Eleusiʹne, Hyparrheʹnia and Cymbopoʹgon are some of the dominant grasses. The areas with deciduous trees make up 75% of the country’s area, while evergreen forests cover only 2-3%. Lowland rainforest occurs mainly in the Usambara, Nguru and Uluguru mountains in eastern Tanzania. At higher altitudes, over 1,200 m above sea level, there are mountain rainforests with, among other things, Aningeʹria and Chrysophyʹllum (both in the family sapotyledge), Ocoʹtea (the family legume plants), Podocaʹrpus, Hageʹnia and Rapaneʹa (family vive plants).
Above the tree line on the mountains spread heaths dominated by the heather plant genera Eriʹca, Philiʹppia and Blaeria [blue: ʹ-]. In the most vulnerable locations, species of giant lobelium and giant anecdio (Dendroseneʹcio) occur, which have several isolated occurrences in the East African mountains.
The most famous of Tanzania’s plants is probably the potted plant saintpaulia. The species grows on shady cliffs in lowland forests, but is now considered extinct in the wild.
Wildlife is one of the richest in Africa, at least as far as savannas are concerned. There are over 300 mammal species, including almost all of the typical African. There are about 40 species of ungulates, just over 30 species of predators and more than ten species of primates. Large herds of antelopes, gazelles, African buffalo and common zebra are found in, among others. Serengeti. Laps, lions, leopards and spotted hyena are quite common in the national parks, while hyen dogs and cheetahs are unusual. The Gomber Reserve in western Tanzania has chimpanzees.
Bird life is very rich, with about 850 breeding species. About 60 species of birds of prey breed, and a few more Palarctic species spend parts of the year here. Rhinoceros, bee-eaters, bearded and sunbirds are richly represented, as are weavers and guinea fowl. There are about 245 species of reptiles and about 120 species of amphibians. In the savannahs there are many species of termites (important food for earthworm and ear dog) and local tsetse flies.
In the waterways are hippos, nil crocodile and a rich fish fauna. The geologically old Tanganyika lake has about 250 species of fish, most of which are endemic. On the coast there are rich coral reefs and also a small trunk of the siren dugong.
In 1996, Tanzania had twelve national parks, the largest of which were the savannah area Serengeti, with very rich wildlife, and Ruaha, a river valley with, among other things. Elephant. Others include Kilimanjaro and Lake Manyara.