Terrain shapes and bedrock
In several respects, Uruguay is a transitional area between Brazil’s highlands and Pampa’s plains in Argentina. The southeastern part is a low mountain plateau with arcuate ridges that rise significantly above the plateau surface. The largest of them is Cuchilla Grande. Uruguay’s highest point is Catedral, 513 meters above sea level. In central Uruguay, crystalline shales are mostly overlain by fairly loose shales and sandstones from the Permian and Mesozoic.
The river Río Negro, which crosses the country, has cut down its wide canal, and through built dams large artificial lakes have been formed. Further north, the back Cuchilla de Haedo extends across the country. Along the border with Brazil there are some mountains; inter alia heights of red sandstone, partly covered by basalt, extend into northern Uruguay.
Along the Atlantic coast, a low and fairly wide coastal plain is spreading. It is built up by flying sand, which forms long lines of dunes, and also has large, shallow beach lakes, the largest of which is the Mirin lagoon. Along the border with Argentina flows the Uruguay River, which is the largest river. It opens in the great estuary of Río de la Plata.
Loose soil occurs and is important as it is transformed into fertile soils.
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According to COUNTRYAAH, Uruguay has a temperate climate with an average temperature of 22 °C in January (summer) and 10 °C in July. The rainfall is 800–1,000 mm per year and falls mainly in the fall (April – May). The weather is extremely variable, due to low pressure and storm centers passing. A cold breeze from the southwest, pampero, can cause sudden temperature drops. Thunderstorms are common, as are fogs in the winter.
Most of it is an open, grassy prairie landscape, a continuation of Pampas in Argentina. The landscape is partly culturally created and the original tree and string vegetation was previously significantly denser. Nowadays there are gallery forests with low trees along the rivers, while it is mainly in the northern parts that you find denser forests with species such as Iʹlex paraguarieʹnsis (the family of holly plants) and paranatals (Araucaʹria brasiliaʹna, the family of araucaria plants). The southernmost parts are largely cultivated.
The mammalian fauna is poor with only about 60 terrestrial species, including rodents and bats. There are no primates and only two species each of ungulates and marsupials. Among the twelve species of predators are the margay cat, Geoffroy’s cat (Leopaʹrdus geoffroyi [-rɔ in ʹi]), pumpkin cat, common rhino (Naʹsua naʹsua) and crab- eating raccoon (Proʹcyon cancriʹvorus). There are about 22 species of rodents, among others. capy, swamp beaver and three species of rats. A total of 20 species of whales have been observed on the coasts, laplate dolphin in Río de la Plata.
The bird fauna is also poor with about 240 breeding species. Ordinary nandu is still rare on Pampas; there are also several species of bird birds, and the owl owl is quite common. In the forest areas there are several species of parrots. Frogs and reptiles are few, but there is an endemic species in each group.
In 2010, there were seven areas called national parks; their main purpose, however, is only to protect the landscape. In total, less than half a percent of the country’s area enjoyed some form of nature protection.