Terrain shapes and bedrock
Yemen is mainly in the middle parts a highland and has a very changing topography. The mountain peak Hadur Shuayb just west of Sana is the highest on the entire Arabian Peninsula, 3,760 m asl. Within this mountain range, in the north, there is a plateau, 1,000-2,000 m above sea level, which is desert-like. To the west, the mountain ridge slopes steeply down towards the Red Sea through a number of faults. A 250-400 km wide coastal plain, Tihama, is spreading within the coastline.
Along the Aden Bay in the Indian Ocean, an approximately 1,200 km of coastal plain extends. Inside, the highlands at the far west, Hadramawt, reach an altitude of 3,268 meters above sea level. This highland is mainly built up of limestone and sandstone. It is divided by various dry valleys such as Wadi Mayfaa and Wadi Hadramawt into separate masses. Within the mountain plateaus, lower areas form the foothills of the Rub al-Khali desert. Severe earthquakes have hit the mountain country, for example south of Sana in 1982.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Yemen has a dry tropical climate, where the altitude variations have a strong influence on the temperature conditions. The average temperature around Aden in January is 25 ° C, in July 32 ° C. On days, the temperature often rises to 38 ° C. The highland areas are about 10 ° C colder and frost and snow can occur in winter. In the west, the annual rainfall is 400 mm, but in some years it can fall up to 750 mm and in the inner parts less than 100 mm.
Yemen is at the intersection of three biogeographical areas: the Palearctic, the African and the Asian. This has resulted in the highest species richness in the Middle East, namely about 1,700 species of vascular plants, of which 5-10 percent are endemic. From a botanical point of view, the southern coast of Yemen and the island of Sokotra (with more than 200 endemic species) appear to be of particular interest. A closed stratum of trees is missing in Yemen, and the landscape is instead dominated by the peninsula with bushland where succulents, hedges and scattered trees, such as acacias, play a prominent role. On higher mountain peaks, unique alpine vegetation types occur, and along the coast there is mangrove vegetation here and there.
The fauna is fairly rich in the Arabian Peninsula and has several African features. There are 66 species of mammals, 143 species of nesting birds and 77 species of reptiles (including 31 endemic).
Larger mammals include Arabian gazelle (Gazeʹlla gazeʹlla), Nubian Capricorn (Caʹpra iʹbex nubiaʹna), smaller kudu (possibly extinct now), leopard (rare), streaked hyena, sand fox (Vuʹlpes rueppeʹllii), golden elephant, golden elephant, golden egret, golden elf
Several other African bird species breed in the lush areas of the south, including. shadow bird (Scoʹpus umbreʹtta), abbey stork (Cicoʹnia abdiʹmii), helmet bead, African palm sailor (Cypsiuʹrus paʹrvus), gray-headed kingfisher (Haʹlcyon leucoceʹphala), gray horned catfish (Toxus tusk)
In the mountain and desert areas, several species of larch and avian and the coasts breed many species of terns. Among the many herbivores are the horned snake, the Egyptian cobra and the Dabbagamer. On the west coast, the very rich coral reefs begin to reach far into the Red Sea.
The country had no protected areas in 2010, but the island of Zuqur in the Red Sea is proposed to be the country’s first national park.