at the Berlin Congress in 1878, the European powers
recognized the full independence of Serbia and Montenegro,
and they remained respectively. 1882 and 1905 transformed
into kingdoms. During the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 13,
Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Romania and Bulgaria initially
allied themselves against the Ottoman Empire. Then they
began to invite war on control of the region. Macedonia was
divided between Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria. Serbia and
Montenegro expanded their territories.
The Serbian opposition to the Austro-Hungarian Empire led
in 1914 to the assassination of the empire's successor,
Ferdinand, which was the trigger for World War 1. As a
result of the upheavals that led to the fall of the empire,
a Serbian-Croat-Slovenian kingdom was established in 1918,
which included Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia,
Slavonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The monarchy was
centralized and dominated by one ethnic group: the Serbs.
The elected bodies were ineffective and they did not control
the executive bodies. Parties representing workers and
peasants were suppressed. The party system brought regions,
ethnic and religious groups together.
After fierce conflicts with supporters of federalization,
democratization and ethnic equality, in 1929 the king,
Alexandr Karagueorgevitch, took unanimous power, and all
party political activity was banned. The Communist Party
operated underground throughout the period 1921-41. In 1929
the country was renamed Yugoslavia - the "land of the South
Slavs". The Serbs retained government power and the kingdom
evolved into dictatorship. The regime's nationalist policy
led to the boom of a strong anti-Serb movement among Croats
and other ethnic minorities. The contradictions led to the
king being killed in Marseilles in 1934.
During World War II, the government joined the Axis
Powers. Over the course of two days, it was set aside and a
coalition government formed. Shortly after - on April 6,
1941 - Yugoslavia was attacked by German, Italian and
Bulgarian troops without any prior declaration of war. The
government and the king fled to London, declaring that it
was continuing the war on the British side. The country was
now divided between Germany, Bulgaria, Italy, Hungary and
Belgrade, capital of the Republic of Serbia; the city lies where
the river Sava flows into the Danube on the border between the Central European
plain and the Serbian mountain area. Since World War II, the city has grown
sharply from 280,000 homes in 1944 to approximately 1.3 million in 2015. in approximately
90% are Serbs, but by the way, all Yugoslav population groups are represented.
The city has many forms of industry, and the food, textile and heavy
industries are the center of gravity. The factories are located mainly along the
railway and the Sava River and are responsible for a noticeable air pollution.
The largest interconnected industrial area is in the suburb of Rakovica, where
especially the heavy iron and metal production is located. However, the
industry, much of which is from the time of Yugoslavia, is characterized by
decay and extensive unemployment.
Belgrade is a transport center with national and international connections
from both airport, railway station and a considerable river port. The city's
internal transport system is characterized by an extensive public transport
network of first and foremost trams, trolley and city buses. Private motorism is
growing rapidly, which has put the infrastructure under intense pressure, and
this has only been gradually and partially rectified due to lack of resources.
The inner city is predominantly from 1900-t. In addition to residential
neighborhoods, the city has a monumental center with parliamentary and
administrative buildings for the former Yugoslavia and Serbia, the Supreme
Court, the university (grdl. 1863), the national museum and the national theater
(grdl. 1869). In the business district with department stores and specialty
shops, the development consists of 6-storey street houses, interrupted by
individual hotel and office buildings. A promenade with strip shops and cafes
leads up to the old fortress Kalemegdan, which today is the inner city's spirit
hole, a widely used park area. The fortress's current site dates mainly from the
Austrian period, but parts of the former Ottoman plant still exist.
At the highest point of the inner city lies the Sava Church, which has been
under construction throughout most of the 1900's. It can be seen from most roads
and is the largest church building in the Orthodox world.
The hilly terrain has meant that the post-war rampant urban growth has taken
place in separate neighborhoods that have up to 70,000 residents. impression.
In southern Savabred, a brand new city, Novi Belgrade, has been built, with a
congress center, presidential palace and luxury hotels in steel, glass and
concrete, as well as with residential carriages and student colleges at 15-20
Two concrete buildings of 40 storeys height constitute, respectively. an
eastern and a western marker on the periphery of the city and appear as modern
Belgrade, 'The White City', was first mentioned by its Slavic name in the
800th century, but the oldest settlements on the site date from Neolithic times.
Belgrade's strategic location has, through the ages, made it the subject of
numerous conquests and destruction, so although the city's known history spans
more than 2000 years, there is hardly a building older than 200 years. In the
200-tfKr. the Celts built the fortress Singidun on the spot, which after the
Roman conquest of the Balkans around the birth of Christ was named Singidunum.
In the 400-h. the female king Attila took the city, later captured by
sarmatians, Goths, Avars, Byzantines and Hungarians. The slaves, who migrated
into the Balkans in the 500-t., First became masters of Belgrade in the 1200-t.,
When it came under the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin.
When the last remnants of the Serbian medieval period were destroyed, the
Ottomans entered Belgrade in 1521, from which they made several conquests into
Hungary and Austria. In the Austro-Turkish wars of 1700-t. the city was
alternately in Austrian and Turkish hands until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in
After Serbian uprisings in the early 1800's. first made Miloš Obrenović
Belgrade his capital, and gradually the cultural center of the Serbs moved from
Novi Sad to Belgrade.
During World War I, the Austrians occupied Belgrade from 1915 to 1918. After
the end of the war, Belgrade was proclaimed "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and
Slovenes", later Yugoslavia.
The German bombing of Belgrade in 1941 led to the rapid capitulation and
disintegration of Yugoslavia. Belgrade was occupied by the Germans until it was
liberated by Tito's partisan army in 1944 and again made the capital of a
united, from then on by socialist and federal Yugoslavia.
In 1992, Yugoslavia split and Belgrade became the capital of a reduced
Yugoslavia, consisting of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro.
During the 1999 Kosovo crisis, NATO aircraft attacked many targets in
Belgrade, including bridges, factories, power plants and official buildings.