According to COUNTRYAAH, at the Berlin Congress in 1878, the European powers recognized the full independence of Serbia and Montenegro, and they remained respectively. 1882 and 1905 transformed into kingdoms. During the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 13, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, Romania and Bulgaria initially allied themselves against the Ottoman Empire. Then they began to invite war on control of the region. Macedonia was divided between Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria. Serbia and Montenegro expanded their territories.
The Serbian opposition to the Austro-Hungarian Empire led in 1914 to the assassination of the empire’s successor, Ferdinand, which was the trigger for World War 1. As a result of the upheavals that led to the fall of the empire, a Serbian-Croat-Slovenian kingdom was established in 1918, which included Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia, Slavonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The monarchy was centralized and dominated by one ethnic group: the Serbs. The elected bodies were ineffective and they did not control the executive bodies. Parties representing workers and peasants were suppressed. The party system brought regions, ethnic and religious groups together.
After fierce conflicts with supporters of federalization, democratization and ethnic equality, in 1929 the king, Alexandr Karagueorgevitch, took unanimous power, and all party political activity was banned. The Communist Party operated underground throughout the period 1921-41. In 1929 the country was renamed Yugoslavia – the “land of the South Slavs”. The Serbs retained government power and the kingdom evolved into dictatorship. The regime’s nationalist policy led to the boom of a strong anti-Serb movement among Croats and other ethnic minorities. The contradictions led to the king being killed in Marseilles in 1934.
During World War II, the government joined the Axis Powers. Over the course of two days, it was set aside and a coalition government formed. Shortly after – on April 6, 1941 – Yugoslavia was attacked by German, Italian and Bulgarian troops without any prior declaration of war. The government and the king fled to London, declaring that it was continuing the war on the British side. The country was now divided between Germany, Bulgaria, Italy, Hungary and Albania.
Belgrade, capital of the Republic of Serbia; the city lies where the river Sava flows into the Danube on the border between the Central European plain and the Serbian mountain area. Since World War II, the city has grown sharply from 280,000 homes in 1944 to approximately 1.3 million in 2015. in approximately 90% are Serbs, but by the way, all Yugoslav population groups are represented.
The city has many forms of industry, and the food, textile and heavy industries are the center of gravity. The factories are located mainly along the railway and the Sava River and are responsible for a noticeable air pollution. The largest interconnected industrial area is in the suburb of Rakovica, where especially the heavy iron and metal production is located. However, the industry, much of which is from the time of Yugoslavia, is characterized by decay and extensive unemployment.
Belgrade is a transport center with national and international connections from both airport, railway station and a considerable river port. The city’s internal transport system is characterized by an extensive public transport network of first and foremost trams, trolley and city buses. Private motorism is growing rapidly, which has put the infrastructure under intense pressure, and this has only been gradually and partially rectified due to lack of resources.
The inner city is predominantly from 1900-t. In addition to residential neighborhoods, the city has a monumental center with parliamentary and administrative buildings for the former Yugoslavia and Serbia, the Supreme Court, the university (grdl. 1863), the national museum and the national theater (grdl. 1869). In the business district with department stores and specialty shops, the development consists of 6-storey street houses, interrupted by individual hotel and office buildings. A promenade with strip shops and cafes leads up to the old fortress Kalemegdan, which today is the inner city’s spirit hole, a widely used park area. The fortress’s current site dates mainly from the Austrian period, but parts of the former Ottoman plant still exist.
At the highest point of the inner city lies the Sava Church, which has been under construction throughout most of the 1900’s. It can be seen from most roads and is the largest church building in the Orthodox world.
The hilly terrain has meant that the post-war rampant urban growth has taken place in separate neighborhoods that have up to 70,000 residents. impression.
In southern Savabred, a brand new city, Novi Belgrade, has been built, with a congress center, presidential palace and luxury hotels in steel, glass and concrete, as well as with residential carriages and student colleges at 15-20 storeys height.
Two concrete buildings of 40 storeys height constitute, respectively. an eastern and a western marker on the periphery of the city and appear as modern city gates.
Belgrade, ‘The White City’, was first mentioned by its Slavic name in the 800th century, but the oldest settlements on the site date from Neolithic times. Belgrade’s strategic location has, through the ages, made it the subject of numerous conquests and destruction, so although the city’s known history spans more than 2000 years, there is hardly a building older than 200 years. In the 200-tfKr. the Celts built the fortress Singidun on the spot, which after the Roman conquest of the Balkans around the birth of Christ was named Singidunum. In the 400-h. the female king Attila took the city, later captured by sarmatians, Goths, Avars, Byzantines and Hungarians. The slaves, who migrated into the Balkans in the 500-t., First became masters of Belgrade in the 1200-t., When it came under the Serbian king Stefan Dragutin.
When the last remnants of the Serbian medieval period were destroyed, the Ottomans entered Belgrade in 1521, from which they made several conquests into Hungary and Austria. In the Austro-Turkish wars of 1700-t. the city was alternately in Austrian and Turkish hands until it fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1791.
After Serbian uprisings in the early 1800’s. first made Miloš Obrenović Belgrade his capital, and gradually the cultural center of the Serbs moved from Novi Sad to Belgrade.
During World War I, the Austrians occupied Belgrade from 1915 to 1918. After the end of the war, Belgrade was proclaimed “Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes”, later Yugoslavia.
The German bombing of Belgrade in 1941 led to the rapid capitulation and disintegration of Yugoslavia. Belgrade was occupied by the Germans until it was liberated by Tito’s partisan army in 1944 and again made the capital of a united, from then on by socialist and federal Yugoslavia.
In 1992, Yugoslavia split and Belgrade became the capital of a reduced Yugoslavia, consisting of the republics of Serbia and Montenegro.
During the 1999 Kosovo crisis, NATO aircraft attacked many targets in Belgrade, including bridges, factories, power plants and official buildings.