Terrain shapes and bedrock
Within the straight east-west coastline towards the
Atlantic, a coastal plain of young deposits has been formed.
Here are sandy beaches, mangrove swamps and marshland.
Within the coastal plain there are deposits of white and
brown sand, which have been deposited during the last five
million years, a slightly wavy surface, which is mostly
covered with savanna. Further inland there are hill terrain,
where the Precambrian rocks of the Guyanese Shield are in
their places during the day.
In the mountainous southern part of Suriname, several
mountain ranges extend down towards the Tumuc-Humac
mountains on the border with Brazil. At its highest is the
Wilhelmin Mountain with Julianatop, 1 230 m above sea level.
Several parallel rivers flow north, in the west border
river Corantijn, then Nickerie, Coppename and Saramacca as
well as Suriname, which flows through the large van
Blommesteinsjö and Marowijne, border river to French Guiana.
COUNTRYAAH, Suriname has a tropical climate with high humidity and
even heat throughout the year. The average daily temperature
varies between 23 °C and 31 °C and the average temperature
for the year is 27 °C.
The rainfall in the coastal area is 1,900 mm per year in
the west and 2,400 mm in the east. In the mountain areas in
the south, it amounts to over 2,500 mm per year.
Most of Suriname's area is occupied by a type of
seasonally influenced tropical rainforest with a mosaic of
plant communities that is highly dependent on the
topography. In the rainforest, species from the families are
pea, sapotillas, incense trees, paranuts and mulberries.
Unlike many other countries in South America, Suriname is
still largely untouched in its interior.
Mangrove is found all along the coast, in which
Aviceʹnnia (family of verbs) and red mangrove occur.
Within the coast, extensive swamps with grass, silk and
rolling down are spreading. However, these swamps have been
replaced by highly productive rice fields, especially in
western Suriname. Swamp forests, which are often dominated
by a single tree species, are also part of the picture. In
these, for example, Triplaʹris (family oily
plants), Bonafousia [-fu: ʹ-] (family oleander
plants), Symphoʹnia (family clusia plants) and
Huʹra (family thistle plants). In their neighborhoods
there are small areas called savannahs but which are really
just a vegetation type with herb vegetation and scattered
trees and shrubs.
Large parts of the country are protected by nature, which
is why many species have disappeared in neighboring parts of
the Amazon. There are about 187 species of mammals, among
others. lowland tapestry, jaguar, ozelot, giant otter and
giant ant cape. However, there are only eight species of
monkeys, i.a. red crab monkey (Alouaʹtta
seniʹculus) and black cobweb monkey (Aʹteles
paniʹscus). Birdlife is rich, with tropical groups well
represented especially in the rainforests, e.g. trumpeter
birds, macaw parrots, hummingbirds, toucans, trogons,
jackals, and cutaways.
Among the reptiles are the green iguana and the king's
nest, as well as in connection with the Schneider's armor (Paleosuʹchus
trigonaʹtus) and anaconda. In the rivers there are many
species of moths as well as dragonflies and salmon carp.
pirayas, and in the sea band four-eyed fish. Insect life is
very rich. herculean beetles, migratory ants and a variety
of day butterfly species.
Suriname has built up a well-developed nature preserve,
which was partly put out of play by political unrest in
1986. In 2010, there were eleven major nature reserves and a
national park, Brownsberg (rainforest). On the coast there
are several reserves for wetland birds and turtles.