Terrain shapes and bedrock
Within the straight east-west coastline towards the Atlantic, a coastal plain of young deposits has been formed. Here are sandy beaches, mangrove swamps and marshland. Within the coastal plain there are deposits of white and brown sand, which have been deposited during the last five million years, a slightly wavy surface, which is mostly covered with savanna. Further inland there are hill terrain, where the Precambrian rocks of the Guyanese Shield are in their places during the day.
In the mountainous southern part of Suriname, several mountain ranges extend down towards the Tumuc-Humac mountains on the border with Brazil. At its highest is the Wilhelmin Mountain with Julianatop, 1 230 m above sea level.
Several parallel rivers flow north, in the west border river Corantijn, then Nickerie, Coppename and Saramacca as well as Suriname, which flows through the large van Blommesteinsjö and Marowijne, border river to French Guiana.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Suriname has a tropical climate with high humidity and even heat throughout the year. The average daily temperature varies between 23 °C and 31 °C and the average temperature for the year is 27 °C.
The rainfall in the coastal area is 1,900 mm per year in the west and 2,400 mm in the east. In the mountain areas in the south, it amounts to over 2,500 mm per year.
Most of Suriname’s area is occupied by a type of seasonally influenced tropical rainforest with a mosaic of plant communities that is highly dependent on the topography. In the rainforest, species from the families are pea, sapotillas, incense trees, paranuts and mulberries. Unlike many other countries in South America, Suriname is still largely untouched in its interior.
Mangrove is found all along the coast, in which Aviceʹnnia (family of verbs) and red mangrove occur. Within the coast, extensive swamps with grass, silk and rolling down are spreading. However, these swamps have been replaced by highly productive rice fields, especially in western Suriname. Swamp forests, which are often dominated by a single tree species, are also part of the picture. In these, for example, Triplaʹris (family oily plants), Bonafousia [-fu: ʹ-] (family oleander plants), Symphoʹnia (family clusia plants) and Huʹra (family thistle plants). In their neighborhoods there are small areas called savannahs but which are really just a vegetation type with herb vegetation and scattered trees and shrubs.
Large parts of the country are protected by nature, which is why many species have disappeared in neighboring parts of the Amazon. There are about 187 species of mammals, among others. lowland tapestry, jaguar, ozelot, giant otter and giant ant cape. However, there are only eight species of monkeys, i.e. red crab monkey (Alouaʹtta seniʹculus) and black cobweb monkey (Aʹteles paniʹscus). Birdlife is rich, with tropical groups well represented especially in the rainforests, e.g. trumpeter birds, macaw parrots, hummingbirds, toucans, trogons, jackals, and cutaways.
Among the reptiles are the green iguana and the king’s nest, as well as in connection with the Schneider’s armor (Paleosuʹchus trigonaʹtus) and anaconda. In the rivers there are many species of moths as well as dragonflies and salmon carp. pirayas, and in the sea band four-eyed fish. Insect life is very rich. herculean beetles, migratory ants and a variety of day butterfly species.
Suriname has built up a well-developed nature preserve, which was partly put out of play by political unrest in 1986. In 2010, there were eleven major nature reserves and a national park, Brownsberg (rainforest). On the coast there are several reserves for wetland birds and turtles.