Terrain shapes and bedrock
Bangladesh’s terrain forms are characterized by the many water-rich rivers and their dense river arms and huge delta formations, which are constantly growing. The most significant rivers are the Ganges and Brahmaputra, with the common estuary arm Padma. Also important are Tista in the north and Meghna in the south. Powerful alluvial layers cover the bedrock and consist of younger, light brown soils and older humus-containing and dark clays.
Large parts of the country are floodplains and low plateau areas. Among them are: Brahmaputra’s floodplains, known for their devastating floods, and Meghna’s river basin. The central Bengal delta comprises large lake areas. On the coast of the Bay of Bengal there is a belt of young, immature delta formations with the Sundarbans forest area. Slightly higher parts are found between Ganges and Brahmaputra in the northwest and in the Sylhet Hills on the border with the Khasi Mountains in the northeast, which reach 330 m above sea level. The completely divergent nature has the wooded Chittagong hill region, which spreads towards Burma in the southeast.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Bangladesh has a monsoon tropical rainforest climate with high humidity and high, seasonal rainfall. In April the temperature reaches maximum values of 33-36 ° C, during the rainy season 27 ° C, and in November – March it is on average 18-20 ° C.
The rainfall amounts to more than 1,500 mm per year, except in some parts of the west, while large areas get 2,500 mm and the Sylhet region in the northeast 3 750-55 mm per year. The southwest monsoon brings rain during June – October, while the winter monsoon brings down dry air from the interior to the north during November – March.
Tropical hurricanes often hit the area in early summer. The water in the Bay of Bengal can then be pushed up to 6 m above normal level. As a result, severe losses in human life and property are caused in the low delta areas.
Plant-and animal life
Bangladesh’s area is currently covered by 15% of forest, while 2/3 is agricultural land. The whole of Bangladesh was originally covered by lush and often swampy forests. The hinterland was occupied by transitional forms between tropical rainforest and monsoon forest. Coastal areas, which are divided by the river delta and islands, are covered by mangrove forests and are still to a large extent.
Wildlife is rich, albeit reduced due to human landscape transformation. About 200 mammal species and about 750 bird species are known from Bangladesh. Samar deer, Indian Mouthjak, jackal, lip bear and rhesus monkeys have a wide spread. Indian elephant (about 250 specimens), tiger, leopard, (wild) water buffalo and guy are now few. Barasinga (swamp deer), Malay bear and collar bear are almost extinct. In Brahmaputra there are ganges dolphin and gavial.
Bangladesh had five national parks in 2009. There were an additional seven protected areas, three of which were located in Sundarbans and, above all, were used to protect tigers.