Terrain forms, bedrock and climate
From a geographical point of view, Bhutan is a transition area between the Himalayan mountain system in the north of over 7,000 m above sea level. and the Brahmaputra flood plain in the south at about 15 m above sea level. This large difference in height and the general slope of the land surface to the south causes large differences in temperature and precipitation within the country and has a strong impact on vegetation, accessibility and cultivation opportunities.
According to COUNTRYAAH, the Great Himalayas, a landform region in the north, are characterized by glacier-covered peaks over 7,300 m above sea level. and valleys between 5,500 and 3,600 m above sea level. The furthest north of the Tibetan Plateau reaches in the far north with altitude troughs that form water divisions between rivers to the north and south respectively. The climate in the region is dry and the insulation is noticeable.
To the south, the landform region takes on the Inner Himalayas, where north-south outcrops from the large mountain range in the north divide the land surface into deep river basins. The largest rivers are called Torsa, Wong, Sankosh, Tongsa, Kuru and Manas; they all flow into Brahmaputra. The valleys are wide and at the bottom flat and fertile and range between 2 750 and 1500 m above sea level. The difference in altitude and the exposure to the monsoon winds give rise to varying types of vegetation and cultivation possibilities.
At the far south is a plain, about 15 km wide Du角r Plains; in its northern part the terrain is irregular with uneven slope surfaces. This whole southern area is hot and humid.
Plant-and animal life
The lowland in the south houses a damp monsoon forest, with among other things. hall, screw palm trees, wild species in the genus bananas and giant bamboo. Nearer the Indian border there are also drier savannas. The mountains in the middle region of the country were originally covered by moist ecododendron forests with elements of layers, maple and al. Above about 2,800 m above sea level. takes coniferous forests with species of fir, spruce, larch, hemlock and one. In the northern parts of the country, the vegetation is alpine or in many places desert.
Previously, in the lowlands there was a rich big game fauna with, among other things. elephant, tiger, leopard, Indian rhino and ax deer, but the stocks are now very decimated. In the alpine region you will find several wild goat relatives and snow leopards. About 500 bird species have been found in Bhutan.
Bhutan has only recently established nature protected areas. The first national park, Royal Manas, was set aside in 1988. The country has three more national parks and five other protected areas. The largest national park is Jigme Dorji (4 350 km2).