Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, the Maldives are made up of a wide range of coral islands, located on the deep-sea spine of the Maldives. The individual islands have been built on volcanic canoes and volcanic ridges that have slowly subsided. Coral colonies have been established when lowered to or slightly below the surface of the water. The nearly 1,800 individual islands and banks are often grouped together. From the 19 major atolls in the south, the large Suvadiva toll is separated through the One and a half degree channel. Between this atoll and the southernmost, the Adduatoll, is the Equator Canal. All the islands are very low, 2-6 m above sea level, but they are protected from the onslaught by sea waves through ring reefs and barrier reefs. The coral lime gives rise to restricted areas with good soil, and sources provide some freshwater supplementation.
According to BRIDGAT, the location of the Maldives just next to the equator and near India gives the islands a tropical rainforest climate with monsoon character. Rainy season falls during May – August, when the southwest monsoon prevails. During the December – March dry season, the northeast monsoon introduces relatively dry air over the islands. On average, there is 2 100 mm of precipitation per year, and the average temperature stays around 27 ° C throughout the year.
The Maldives has a flora similar to that of Ceylon and along the coast of southern India. However, the landscape is very culturally influenced, and herbs are preferable to those with widespread use in warmer countries. Especially among the trees are coconut palm, wild almond (Terminaʹlia cataʹppa), tamarind and the beautiful yellow-flowering Hibiʹscus tiliaʹceus. In some places, there are frequent strings dominated by, among other things. pandanaceae. In protected lagoons there is some mangrove vegetation of the genus Bruguieʹra.
The rather isolated location of the islands means that the higher wildlife is poor. The only native mammals are bats, among others. the flying dog species badul (Pteʹropus giganteʹus) and Pteropus hypomeʹlanus. Bird life is also poor, with only a few species of land birds. Even among seabirds, the number of nesting species is low compared to many other islands in the Indian Ocean. Among the breeding species are audubon lira (Puffiʹnus lherminieʹri), white-tailed tropical bird (Phaʹethon leptuʹrus), smaller frigate bird (Fregaʹta aʹriel), cotyledon and long-billed nodal tern (Aʹnous tenuiroʹstris).
Crustaceans are represented by geckos, including tokai, as well as several species of sea turtles, which lay eggs on undisturbed sandy beaches. Several of the islands have coral reefs with rich wildlife.
The Maldives had no nature-protected areas in 2010.