Terrain shapes and bedrock
The land surface in Chad has the shape of a large stream, surrounded by mountains except in the west. Here is the drainage Chad lake in the middle of the border with Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon. Its water surface varies, and the lake has previously had a much larger extent. Among the mountains, north of volcanic Tibesti is marked with the country’s highest point, Emi Koussi, 3,415 m asl. To the northeast is Ennedi’s sandstone plateau, to the east of Ouaddaï’s crystalline rock massif and to the south of the Oubangui Plateau. Only a few rivers, such as Chari and Logone, are significant. They flow from the southeast and end up in Lake Chad.
The soil layer around Lake Chad consists mostly of sand and clay, north of desert and semi-desert soil. In the southeast and along the rivers there are marshlands, while the Ouaddaï area has red-colored tropical soil.
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According to COUNTRYAAH, Chad has a tropical climate, in the south alternating humid savanna climate, while the middle part has a semi-arid and northern arid climate. The latter characterizes the area north of Lake Chad, which is part of the Sahara’s large desert area. The steppe climate forms a narrow east – west belt just south of Lake Chad. The rainfall here amounts to 300–800 mm per year and falls in June – September. The average temperature is 25-30 °C, except in the far north, where it is 35 °C.
Northern Chad is part of the Sahel, while southern Chad belongs to the Sudanese flora area. The low rainfall in the north makes the vegetation is sparse, with Ari’stida pu’ngens and other grasses as the dominant species. The drought also means that annual plants are common and that some perennial species have developed annual so-called ecotypes. As in other areas of the Sahara, richer flora is found along the riverbeds, which, however, are usually dehydrated. The Tibesti mountain area in northern Chad has richer flora similar to that of Ahaggar and Tassili n’Ajjer in southeastern Algeria. Towards the south, denser tree populations occur with acacias, Greʹwia, Combreʹtum and Balaniʹtes aegyptiʹaca. In the south, the herb flora also becomes richer, and among the grass is especially noticeablePaniʹcum, Eragroʹstis and Ariʹstida species.
The fauna is dominated by savanna and desert animals. There are just over 130 species of mammals and almost 500 species of breeding birds. Among the approximately 25 species of ungulates are giraffe, sable orex, horse antelope, larger kudu, deer deer (Gazeʹlla daʹma) and male sheep. Predators include: leopard, lion, caracal, spotted and striped hyena and several species of desert foxes. Husar monkey, green markatta and anubis baby are the only monkeys in Chad.
In and around Lake Chad, which houses about 100 species of fish, there is the Nile Crocodile, Hippopotamus and possibly even Senegal Manatee. Here, bird life is also richest, with among other things. maraboustork and herons and during parts of the year waders and ducks. The savannas include ostriches, stairs and widows and other weavers as well as astrologers and larches. In the deserts there are, among other things. scorpion spiders and many species of scorpions.
In 1996, Chad had two national parks, the Zakouma savannah area with lion, leopard, elephant, African buffalo and many antelope species as well as Manda, both in the south. In addition, there were seven major fauna reserves, including the large Ouadi Rimé – Ouadi Achim and Bahr Salamat.