Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Lebanon has a strongly embossed relief with heights of over 3,000 meters above sea level. Most of the country is mountainous and sloping areas therefore dominate. Lebanon is usually divided into four topographical regions, all of which extend to the north-northeast and southwest. Inside the coastline is a narrow, mostly fertile coastal plain, made up of river deposits and marine sediments. The coast itself has both rocky headlands and sandy bays. Within the coastal plain, the country rises to the dominant landform, Mount Lebanon. It is about 160 km long and 10-55 km wide; it rises almost from the sea level to 3,087 m above sea level. in the top Qurnat as-Sawda in the north. The mountain ridge slopes to the south, but a peak, Jabal Sannin, rises to 2 628 m above sea level. just northeast of Beirut. The bedrock is made up of limestone and sandstone, which gives a rather lean soil.
To the east of Mount Lebanon follows the Beka Valley and then Anti-Lebanon. Both of these parallel mountains and the valley between are a consequence of the faults that occurred in the area in connection with the formation of the East African rift to which they belong. The mountains are horstar and Bekadalen a tomb, about 175 km long and 10-25 km wide. In the south it passes into the lowest parts of Hermon. The peak height of this mountain is 2,814 meters above sea level. on the border with Syria. The largest rivers in Lebanon are Litani, which drains the Beka Valley, as well as Asi and Kabir.
The climate in Lebanon is of warm temperate, Mediterranean type and is characterized by its proximity to the sea and the high mountains. Summer is hot and dry and winter cool and humid. On the coast, the maximum temperature in July during the day reaches 32 ° C and in January 16 ° C, in Bekadalen 32 ° C and 10 ° C respectively. The minimum temperatures in January are 10 ° C and 2 ° C, respectively.
The majority of the annual rainfall, on the coast 750-1000 mm, falls during the winter. The higher parts receive 1,250 mm, a large part as snow, Bekadalen 400-600 mm per year.
The flora is mainly Mediterranean and characterized by winter rain. Along the sea you will find a rich herb flora, including many species of coriander plants, orchids and amaryllis plants. The bush vegetation is culturally affected and fairly depleted and houses species such as the oaks Queʹrcus callipriʹnos and Q. infectoʹria as well as species from among others the Pistaʹcia genus, goats (Rhaʹmnus) and cystros (Ciʹstus).
At higher altitudes, the climate gradually gets drier with Beʹrberis libanoʹtica as the dominant shrub up to about 2,000 m above sea level. At these levels you will also find the remaining forests of Lebanon cedar, which also includes Turkish pine (Piʹnus bruʹtia), a number of oak species and to the north also the Turkish branch.
The higher mountains, over 2,000 m above sea level, are desert-like with lower, often thorny, pillow-shaped half-bushes, including Acantholiʹmon, several wood species, the euphorbia plant Euphourbia caudiculoʹsa and the amaranth plant Noaeʹa mucronaʹta.
There are almost no large mammals left as a result of hunting and the destruction of natural environments. In the mountainous areas and the few remaining coniferous forests there are European wildcats, stone moors, Persian squirrels (Sciuʹrus anoʹmalus) and garden sleepers. caphare and large-eared hedgehog and eastern hedgehog.
Bird life is rich with several species of singers, larches, sparrows and finches. Many migratory birds pass or winter in Lebanon. In the marshes there are then pelicans, egrets, ducks and cormorants. In the mountainous regions impressive numbers of migratory birds of prey can be seen in spring and autumn.
Among the herbivores are the sandboa (Eʹryx jaʹculus), the palestine worm (Viʹpera palaestiʹnae), the tailed swans and dabbagams.
In 2010, Lebanon had a national park, Mashgara, in the south. In addition, there were four so-called forest reserves and the Palm Island marine reserve northwest of Tripoli.
|Gross domestic product (GDP)
|GDP growth rate
|GDP per capita
|GDP by sector
|Proportion of the population below the national poverty line
|Distribution of household income
|Industrial production growth rate
||29.8% of GDP
||146.80% of GDP
|Foreign exchange reserves