Terrain shapes and bedrock
The huge geographical extent of the Russian Federation makes the landscape extremely varied. Plains have their largest distribution in the northern parts, west of Jenisei, while mountain scenery, plateaus and larger hill areas occur most in the south and east within the Asian part.
The more than 2,500 km long Ural Mountains with the highest peak Narodnaja (1,894 meters above sea level) divide the lowland area into a western and an eastern part.
According to COUNTRYAAH, the eastern European plain west of the Ural Mountains is Europe’s largest lowland area with an average height of about 170 meters above sea level. However, there are hill areas and ridge ridges that reach more than 300 meters above sea level, for example the Valdaj and Volga heights, as well as sinks along the Caspian Sea (28 meters below sea level). Larger rivers that flow north to the Arctic Ocean are, for example, Petjora and Severnaja Dvina. The largest river, Volga, flows south, receives the tributaries Oka and Kama and flows into the Caspian Sea.
Don, connected through a canal with Volga, winds down the Tsimlian reservoir in Azovska Lake. Volga has also been regulated and equipped with large reservoirs, such as the Rybinsk, Gorky, Kuybyshev and Volgograd reservoirs. There are many lakes, especially in the northwest, where the largest are Ladoga and Onega.
Urbergs belonging to the Baltic Shield occur on the Kola Peninsula and in Karelia. Further to the south and east, the Russian platform takes on thick layers of sedimentary rocks that slope slightly to the southeast. The southernmost parts have bedrock from Mesozoic and Kenozoic.
Between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea lies the Caucasus, an alpine mountain range made up of granites and gneisses with limestone and sandstone in the north and east. The highest peak Elbrus (5,642 meters above sea level) is also the highest of the Russian Federation.
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East of the Ural Mountains spreads in the north western Siberian plain, which has an average height of about 140 meters above sea level. Large areas at the far north and along the rivers are very low and wooded. Ob with the Irtysh tributary is the main river in this region and flows between two long peninsula in the Cara Sea. The plain has a bedrock of young sedimentary rocks. Jenisei is the border of the plain in the east; where the Central Siberian highland, which has an altitude of 500-700 meters above sea level, extends east to the river Lena. The entire area is heavily ripped apart by rivers, such as Jenisei’s three major tributaries Angara, Rocky Tunguska and Lower Tunguska. At the far north is the Tajmyr Peninsula with Severnaja Zemlja’s island world outside.
The bedrock consists of granite, gneiss and slates formed under the Precambrian. Quilts of younger sedimentary rocks are also present. In the south, the highlands are bounded by a series of high mountain ranges from the Caledonian or Varian mountain range, such as Altaj and the Sajan Mountains. To the east of the Sajan Mountains there is a rift area with Lake Baikal, which is the deepest lake in the world, 1,940 m.
East of Lena, the eastern Siberian mountain country spreads out towards the Bering Sea. The Verchojansk and Cherskij mountains were folded under the Mesozoic as well as Sichote-Alin in the south. The colony mountains as well as the mountains of the Kamchatka and Tjuktjer peninsula along the Pacific are younger formations.
Large-scale soils are tundra soils in the far north, rocky soils in the highlands, pod soles of various kinds, and black soils developed from the loose earth belt deposited outside the quaternary inland ice’s maximum extent.
Most of the Russian Federation has a cold temperate humid climate with a strong continental feel. The Ural Mountains do not constitute a boundary line in the climate.
Along the Arctic Ocean is a belt with tundra climate. Here, the summer temperature is below 10 ° C and only the surface layer in the soil thaws, while the permanent shingle (permafrost) remains further down.
Even in the far south there are areas with different climates, eg. along the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, where there is a steep climate.
In other parts, the Russian Federation has cold winter with an average temperature in January from −5 to −15 ° C in the western part and −20 to −40 ° C in eastern Siberia. A winter high pressure allows the temperature to drop to close to −50 ° C around Verchojansk, where the lowest has been measured −69 ° C. The high pressure also causes the rainfall to be low. The average temperature for July in the western part of the country is 17-20 ° C, the furthest south is 25 ～ C. In the east, the summer temperature is 10-20 ° C. The annual rainfall in the west is 500-700 mm, but in the Caucasus, however, much higher. In Siberia, it is 150-200 mm furthest to the north, otherwise 350-450 mm except on the still sea coast, where it is higher. It mostly falls in the form of snow. provides some protection for the vegetation.
The vast territory of the Russian Federation has a rich and varied flora. How many species are found is difficult to estimate, but in the former Soviet Union, the number of higher plant species was estimated to be about 40,000. Federation.
Farther north on the Arctic tundra, the vegetation is treeless but rich in mosses, lichens, grass and rice. Further south, bushes become more common, e.g. dwarf birch, as well as scattered trees, such as spruce and various larches.
The tajgan, which covers about 40% of the country’s surface, extends south of the tundra from the Baltic to the Pacific. Vegetation in the west is dominated by spruce and pine, but east of Jenisej by various larches. To the south of the shark are various types of deciduous forests, which in the European parts are dominated by five species of oak and have elements of beech and chestnut. Large areas of the European coniferous forest have been felled, with the result that secondary deciduous forests with e.g. asp has been able to expand.
In Sakhalin and the Kurilas in the far east you will find forests of noble spruce and ajangran (Piʹcea jezoëʹnsis), which at higher altitudes are replaced by dwarf birch, pine Piʹnus sibiʹrica and kamjatkab birch (Beʹtula ermaʹnii). In this area, deciduous forests are dominated by deer beeches, lime trees and maples, and in the undergrowth there are arali plants such as Siberian ginseng (Russian root) and ginseng as well as the beautiful species of Korean azalea (Rhododeʹndron schlippenbaʹchii). In some places, the herb vegetation is very rich and lush, with many tall species from several plant families.
Those parts of the Eurasian steppe zone that have not yet been cultivated are dominated by drought-resistant grasses and semi-grasses, e.g. various spring grasses, oats and starches. Large quantities of onion plants and annual herbs bloom in the spring after the winter rains.
In the tundra many species breed waders, ducks and geese, among others. red-necked goose, mountain goose and barley goose. In the east also the gulls and the endangered snow crane nest. Lizards – mountain lizards on the Kola Peninsula, eastward Arctic necklace lizards (Dicrostoʹnyx torquaʹtus) and Siberian lemmas (Leʹmmus sibiʹricus) – are important food bases for, among other things. mountain fox, lobster and mountain owl. The wilds graze on the tundra, mainly in the summertime. Along the Arctic coast and on remote islands there are walrus, polar bear and large colonies of alk birds.
A large part of the bait animals stay within the region all year round. For many, e.g. Crucibles, woodpeckers, small-beaked nut crows and squirrels, coniferous seeds, in particular of camber numbers, are an important food resource. Moose, squirrel, flying squirrel, Siberian ground squirrel (Taʹmias sibiʹricus), forest hare, lo, red fox, Siberian river dill (Musteʹla sibiʹrica), sable (now rare in the west), wolf, wolverine, brown bear, jerky, tarp In the east are many animal species, e.g. musk deer and black- beaked tar (Teʹtrao parviroʹstris). The brown bear on Kamchatka is Eurasia’s largest brown bear (up to 680 kg). There are also sea otters, and 2/3 of the world’s population of giant sea eagles (Haliaeetus [-iɛ: ʹe-] pelaʹgicus) winter in the area. Lake Baikal has a unique fauna; of about 2,500 animal species known to date (many of which are crustaceans) are well over 1,000 endemic. Baikal seal.
The fauna in the mixed forests of the European Russian Federation is similar to the Central European, while the furthest to the southeast (east of Amur-Ussuri) is completely different and noticeably rich. There are tiger, leopard, collar bear, Sikh deer, blue cat, mandarin duck and many beautiful species of flycatcher.
In the non-cultivated steppe areas, burial rodents such as sislings, rats, hamsters and steppe murmur predominate. There is also saiga antelope. Among the birds are the big stairs, small stairs, maidens, steppe whip, steppe hen, steppe eagle and tatar falcon.
Bergen fauna is partly dependent on the bio-geographic region as the region is located in. In Altay are woodchucks bear, Capricorn, Argali, birch mouse (Sici’sta) and altaisnöhöna (Tetraoga’llus alta’icus). In the northeastern Siberian mountains, for example, live. Asian snow sheep (Oʹvis niviʹcola), while king eagles are found in all mountain areas.
In relation to its surface, the Russian Federation has relatively few nature reserves (about 100 larger than 10 km2) and national parks (41), some of which, however, are very large. Among them are Tajmyrsky and Ostrov Vrangelja (Wrangel Island) in the tundra zone, Pribajkalsky (Bajkal) in the tajga zone, Kronotsky on Kamchatka and Altajsky in Altaj.