Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Western Rwanda is made up of the steep faulty slope that delimits the eastern tomb system into the East African rift system to the east. In the northwestern part of the country lies the Virunga mountains, which are of volcanic origin. Here lies Rwanda’s highest mountain, Karisimbi (4,550 m above sea level), on the border with Congo (Kinshasa).
The eastern and central parts of Rwanda comprise a rolling plateau landscape at levels between 1,500 and 2,000 m above sea level. and dewatered towards the Kagera river and on to the Nile.
Western Rwanda is drained via Lake Kivus and Lake Tanganyika by the Ruzizi River.
According to BRIDGAT, the area at Lake Kivus (1,460 m above sea level) lies in the rain shadow of the prevailing east winds. The area east of Kigali has an annual average temperature of 17 °C and an annual average rainfall of about 1,500 mm. In southwestern Rwanda, the corresponding figures are 20 °C and about 1,200 mm. The variations in precipitation are very large year on year.
Plant-and animal life
On the dry high plateaus in the northeast there is a mosaic of grasslands and savannas, where the grasses Imperata and Hyparrheʹnia as well as trees like acacias predominate. Around Kagera in the east there are large swamp fields with papyrus (papyrus) and leaf reed. The mountains in the west still have some mountain rain forest with, among other things. Podocarpus. Above 1,800 m are giant lobelia and giant anecdote. About 2,300 species of flowering plants have been noted.
There are about 150 species of mammals and over 500 species of nesting birds. On the savannas there are typical savannah animals such as African elephant, cow antelope, topi, African buffalo and lion. However, Rwanda is best known for the small tribe of mountain gorillas in the Virunga Mountains. Bird life is rich in herons and snake-bird in the wetlands and bee-eaters, honey cucumbers and widows on the savannas.
In 2007, Rwanda had three national parks: Akagera in the east with a rich wildlife, Volcans in the Virunga mountains with, among other things. mountain gorilla and Nyungwe in the southeast with rich wildlife and plant life, including primates and birds. In addition, there were five forest reserves and four other protected areas.
Rwanda – Kigali
Kigali, capital of Rwanda; 859,300 residents (2013). The city’s population has risen sharply since 1994 as a result of the large influx of refugees from the war-torn countryside.
Kigali, which is located on the Ruganwa River, is the industrial center of Rwanda. The industry is dominated by light manufacturing, such as shoe production, radio composition, paint industry and dyeing.
Since 1977, Kigali has been the seat of the joint organization between Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania to develop the Kager River drainage areas. Due to its central location, Kigali has good connections to other parts of the country. In the city there is technical college education. Kigali has an international airport.
The city was founded in 1885 as a trading center during the German colonization.