Tajikistan is a central Asian state, bordered to the North with Kyrgyzstan, to the East with China, to the South with Afghanistan, to the West and NW with Uzbekistan.
Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Tajikistan is high and mountainous; more than half of the surface is more than 3,000 m above sea level. Northern and central Tajikistan are dominated by outcrops from the Tian Shan mountain range. In the southeast, Pamir’s mountain system with the highest peaks Ismoili Somoni (former name: Pik Kommunizma), 7,495 m above sea level, and Pik Lenina, 7,134 m above sea level.
Valleys occupy less than 10% of the country’s surface but are of great economic importance, e.g. Syr-Darja’s fertile valley in the north. The whole country lies in a seismically active belt with severe earthquakes as a result. Lakes are mostly found in the Pamir area, eg. the salty Karakul, whose surface is 3,960 m above sea level. Lake Sarez was created by an earthquake in 1911. A dense river network exists; the largest rivers are Syr-Darja in the north and Amu-Darja along the border with Afghanistan.
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Tajikistan has a pronounced continental climate. In the valleys it is subtropical with hot and dry summer. July has the average temperature of 27-30 ° C, January −1 to 2 ° C and the annual rainfall is 150-250 mm. In the mountain areas, the average temperature for January is −20 ° C, the precipitation is below 100 mm and falls in summer. However, humid air can be pushed up from the valleys and give 800-1 500 mm of precipitation, mostly as snow.
Tajikistan is located in the arid subtropical climate zone. The climate is extremely continental with cold winters and hot summers. Except in the valley and basin countries, where there is a subtropical, humid climate, temperatures of up to 45 ° C are reached in the summer months. There are large temperature differences between the lower and higher regions of the country.
The annual rainfall is relatively low, so steppe vegetation predominates. In the Fergana Basin, the amount of precipitation is just 140 mm per year. Only the southern slopes of the Hissar Mountains are very rainy with 1700 mm per year.
Plant-and animal life
Most of the country is covered by dryland vegetation with grass and shrubs; only 4% of the area is wooded. The lowland is mainly cultivated, but with interspersed patches of desert and semi-desert vegetation. At the middle altitudes of the mountains (1,800-2,800 m above sea level) there are open forests of meadows. walnut, Turkestan maple (Aʹcer turkestaʹnicum), pistachio almond and juda tree. At higher altitudes there are alpine meadows or mostly different types of steppes.
Approximately 80 mammal species, 375 bird species and 40 reptile species are known from Tajikistan. In lower areas there are many species of rodents and reptiles, further among others. Houbara (Chlamydo’tis undula’ta), golden jackal and require roe (Gaze’lla subgutturo’sa). Brown bear, wolverine, wolf, lo and leopard are found in the mountain forests. Above the tree line are species such as argalifee, alpine goat, screwhorn goat, snow leopard, snow hen and steppe hen (Syrrhaʹptes paradox).
In 2011 there were two national parks, Pamirski and Shirkent, as well as a number of major nature and wildlife reserves.
The territory, mainly mountainous, can be distinguished from the morphological point of view into three areas. In the eastern section the massifs of Alai and Pamir dominate, with peaks exceeding 7000 m (Picco del Comunismo 7495 m, Picco Lenin 7134 m) and large glaciers that feed tributary streams of the Amu Darya. In the western section, the mountain ranges, arranged with an OE orientation, are of lower height (the highest peak, Mount Zeravšan, reaches an altitude of 5489) and are interrupted by wide river valleys. Finally AN, on the border with Kyrgyzstan, is the Fergana valley.
The climate is continental, with considerable temperature variations and with significant variations in relation to the altitude and the exposure of the slopes. Precipitation is scarce, but the availability of water is particularly large thanks to the presence of rivers and lakes, especially in the eastern section of the country.