Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, Uganda is located on a high plateau north of Lake Victoria. The horstbergs, tombs and volcanoes that arose in connection with the formation of the East African rift system constitute the natural boundaries of the country to the west and east. The plateau has a slightly hilly surface that lowers to the north from 1,500 m above sea level. to about 1,000 m asl. The Victoria Nile is a drain for Lake Victoria to the north and flows to the shallow Kyoga Lake and then west to Lake Albert, which is a deep burial basin in the East African rift system. Several waterfalls are found in this part of the Nile, e.g. The Owen Falls in the south as well as the Karuma Falls and the Kabalega Falls just east of northern Alberta Lake. To the south of Lake Albert is the Lake Edward, and between them both Horst Ruwenzori (5 119 m above sea level) rises.
In the southwestern corner of Uganda are the volcanic Virung mountains. The border to the east to Kenya follows several mountains, such as Mount Elgon volcano (4,321 m above sea level) and Kadam, Moroto and farthest in northeast Morungole. Several mountains also rise along the border with Sudan, for example. Langiabergen. From the Albert Lake, Albert-Nile continues towards Sudan. Most of Uganda has a bedrock bedrock, and the soil cover is mainly weathering soil which at the top has been converted into a lateritic soil.
Uganda is located at the equator and has tropical savannah climate. However, the temperature conditions are controlled by the topography and gives an annual average temperature of around 21-24 °C except in the southwest, where it is several degrees colder. The difference during the year is insignificant.
The annual rainfall is lowest in the northeast, about 380 mm; in the north it is about 800 mm, with rainy season April – October. Closer to the equator, about 1,500 mm per year falls during two rainy seasons, April – May and October – November.
Uganda is made up of about 60% of savannah and cultivated land, while thickets and bush land and various types of wetlands occupy about 10% each. Closed forests are only a small part of the vegetation and occur mainly in the rainy areas west of Lake Victoria. Here you will find tree species such as Parina Parri (coconut plum family), Piptadeniaʹstrum (pea family), Chrysophylllum and Ceʹltis. The savannas are dominated by the tree genus like Combreʹtum and acacias and the grass genus like Imperaʹta and Hyparrheʹnia. The interesting afroalpina flora, including Giant lobelias and giant ecesio, are restricted to the high mountains of Mount Elgon, Ruwenzori and Virunga. The flora in Uganda is estimated to comprise about 5,500 species of vascular plants.
Wildlife is extremely rich due to the fact that the East African savannah fauna and the West African rainforest fauna meet in Uganda and that there is also a mountain fauna. You know 340 species of mammals and about 820 species of breeding birds. Furthermore, there are 150 species of reptiles and 50 species of amphibians. Especially in Lake Victoria, but also in eg. Lake Albert, there is a rich cichlid fauna, of which a large proportion of species are endemic. The savannah fauna includes a variety of antelope species as well as African buffalo, common zebra, giraffe, African elephant, hippopotamus, warthog, lion, leopard and anubis baby. Tip rhinoceros remains very rare, while blunt rhinoceros have completely disappeared. Forests in the west include chimpanzee, mountain gorilla and Pennants guereza (Procoʹlobus pennaʹntii).
In 2011, there were ten national parks, including the Ruwenzori Mountains and the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, which are listed on UNESCO’s World Heritage List, as well as Mgahinga Gorilla and Murchison Falls. In addition, there were a dozen game reserves and just as many small nature reserves. Previous civil wars and unrest have caused great harm to wildlife.