Terrain shapes and bedrock
According to COUNTRYAAH, the western part of Uzbekistan is a very flat lowland, comprising about 80 percent of the surface, while the eastern part is mountainous. Around the Aral Sea in the northwest stretch parts of the Turan plain, which in the east turns into the desert Kyzylkum.
The Amu-Darja River, which forms part of the border with Turkmenistan, has deposited a large delta on the southern Aral Sea.
The high, eastern part consists of several mountain ranges, separated by valleys and streams, offshoots from western Tian Shan, among others. Here the Bajsuntau Mountains in the southeast reach 4,424 meters above sea level and Besjtor in the northeast 4 299 meters above sea level.
The fertile Fergana Valley in northeastern Uzbekistan and several oases have a network of irrigation channels. Syr-Darja crosses Uzbekistan in its upper race and passes through the Fergana Valley. Other rivers such as Zeravshan are utilized to the maximum for irrigation and then dry up in the sand. Several streams and plateaus in southeastern Uzbekistan are covered by loose soil.
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Uzbekistan has desert climate in the west and steppe climate in the east. The annual rainfall averages 200 mm and falls most in winter and spring, but is in the mountain areas three times as large as in the lowlands. The long, cloudless summer of May – October gives high temperatures of about 32 ° C on average for July. The day temperature can sometimes exceed 40 ° C. The winter is short and the north has an average temperature of −12 ° C; On individual days, the temperature can drop to -38 ° C.
Uzbekistan has desert vegetation with target plant species from the genus Aʹtriplex, Arthroʹphytum and Saʹlsola as dominant along with herbs and hard-leafed grasses. Against Tian Shan in the east, the flora becomes richer, and although it is mainly of a steppe nature, it has elements of trees and shrubs, such as apple, maple and walnut. In these mountains is the Zaamin Nature Reserve with about 700 species of vascular plants.
Wildlife is dominated by desert animals, especially rodents such as rats and desert rats as well as crawfish. Locally, there is also a gazelle (Gazeʹlla subgutturoʹsa) and in some place the ball (subspecies of the half-ash). Quite a few species of predators, including tiger gills, several species of cat animals, wolf and crustaceans (Vuʹlpes coʹrsac).
Birds are especially noteworthy with larches, stonewatches, various finches, bee-eaters and blue-collar. The terrestrial crow bird Panders desert wars (Podoʹces pandeʹri) occur sparingly. There are many bird species in watered oases.
In the mountain areas farthest to the southeast, a fauna similar to that of Tajikistan is encountered.
Up to the 1960s, the Aral Sea was rich in fish (17 species, including starfish and carp), which supported an extensive fishing industry. The rapidly decreasing water level and the consequent strong salinization have knocked out practically the entire fish fauna.
In 1997, there were two national parks (Ugam-Chatkal and Zaaminsky) and nine major scientific nature reserves, comprising about 2% of the country’s area.