Terrain shapes and bedrock
Along the Caribbean Sea, the mostly mountainous North Coast region is spreading. At the far north it consists of a narrow coastal plain that widens to the west around the faults of Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela. Here there are large swamps and good oil supply in the sedimentary bedrock. Along the coast there are a number of islands, including. Margarita. Lake Maracaibo is surrounded by two branches of the Andes; in the west Sierra de Perijá and in the east Cordillera de Mérida, whose highest peak, Pico Bolívar, reaches 5 007 m above sea level. The coastal mountains run as a continuation of the latter towards the east. It has peaks over 2,500 meters above sea level. and goes out into the Paria Peninsula, just west of Trinidad. The coastal region houses the majority of the population.
Llanos Plains region, only about 300 m above, extends to the south and is particularly wide in the southwest where it includes Orinoco’s valley and extends into the large swampy delta. Orinoco is the dominant river, and part of its water is passed over to Río Negro through the bifurcation arm Casiquiare.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Southeastern Venezuela is occupied by the highlands of Guiana with several peaks over 2,500 meters above sea level. These are parts of an underground shield with large granite masses, partly covered by loose deposits that have been eroded into hills with high slopes. Angelfallen, the world’s highest waterfall, is here.
The soil is mostly leached laterites; more lime-rich soil is found near the Andes.
According to BRIDGAT, Venezuela has a tropical climate with small temperature differences during the year. On the coast, the average temperature for January is about 25 °C, for September 28 °C, while the altitude areas are a few degrees lower temperature. In the coastal area, where the northeast passage winds year-round, about 500 mm of precipitation falls annually. Llanos and Guyana have rainy season during April – October and dry season from November to March, which gives savanna climate except in a smaller area off the Atlantic coast, which has rainforest climate. On all sides of the mountains, rain falls at all times, up to 3,800 mm per year.
Along the coast and in the northwestern parts, bushland with cactus plants, thorny pea plants and capers is dominated. The central parts are dominated by the open grasslands of Llanos, in which the occasionally flooded parts are rich in strip plants and palm trees. Mangroves are found on the coast; otherwise, deciduous forests occur in arid areas and rainforests or fog forests in rainier areas in the mountains.
The evergreen rainforest, which mainly occurs in the southeastern part, is rich in species both in the tree layer and in the undergrowth. In the Andes there is at high altitude (over 3,000 m above sea level) the damp mountain páramo with, among other things. Espeletia species adapted to the harsh climate.
Perhaps most interesting is the shrub vegetation on the inaccessible plateau mountains (tepuis) in the highlands of Guyana, which are very rich in endemic, often systematically isolated species and the genus. A family that is characteristic of the open spaces of these peaks is the unicorn leaf Rapateaʹceae.
The fauna is rich with more than 300 species of mammals, about 1,300 breeding species of birds, about 260 species of reptiles, about 200 species of amphibians and more than 1,000 species of fish.
There are five species of cat animals, including jaguarundi, margay cat and ozelot, and three species of dog, namely bush dog, gray fox and mahogong (Cerdoʹcyon thous [tu: s]). All four marsh species and four species of bed bugs are found in the forests or on the savannahs, as well as capuchin monkeys, crab monkeys, lowland tapestries, navel pigs and tip deer. In the estuaries and along the coast, the siren lives the lamantine.
Many neotropical bird groups are common, including macaw parrots, hummingbirds, mannequins, ant birds, trogons and oven birds, and in some caves, nesting oil birds. In some protected bird-rich areas near the coast (where snake birds, egrets and ibis nest, for example), lace crocodile (Crocodyʹlus acuʹtus) has its strongest mounts in the world. Orinococrocodile (Crocodyʹlus intermeʹdius) is found only in the river Orinoco and is now very rare. Other sea creatures include sea turtle, king’s nest, anaconda, coral worms, land snakes and anise lizards. Among amphibians are among others. paradox frogs, pipe frogs, arrow poison frogs and many species of leaf frogs.
The fish fauna is rich, with among other things. dragonflies, arapaima (furthest south), pirayas and many species of freshwater moths and four-eyed fish in estuaries. The high plateaus and savannas in the south have a unique animal world with a large proportion of endemic species.
As many as 22% of Venezuela enjoy nature conservation through 43 National Parks (2010). The two largest are Parima Tapirapecó and Canaima. Also mentioned are Henri Pittier (many forest types with rich bird fauna) and Sierra Nevada (dry mountain landscape).