Terrain shapes and bedrock
Throughout most of Vietnam, the Annamitic Mountains extend in the northwest-southeast direction, which occupies about two-thirds of the country’s area. The highest part consists of crystalline solid at the far north, where the peak Phăng-xi-păng rises 3,143 m above sea level. In central Vietnam, the coastal parallel chains reach about 1,800 m above sea level, while the southern parts are dominated by plateaus, partly strongly eroded, where some masses reach over 2,500 m above sea level.
Large plains in the north and south constitute Vietnam’s core areas, economically speaking. The Tonkins plain in the north is for the most part a triangular delta, formed by the Red River (Sông Hông). To the south, a plain of the Mekong River’s large deltas and terraces is spreading. The plains are important cultivation areas for eg. rice and sugar cane and are often affected by floods.
Soil moons in Vietnam are often leached on nutrients, while the delta plains have partially fertile soils, e.g. regosoler.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Vietnam has a tropical monsoon climate. The winters are cool in the north, where Hanoi has an average January temperature of 17 ° C. According to BRIDGAT, the average temperature for the summer months is 26-29 ° C throughout the country, while the daytime temperature often exceeds 38 ° C. The south-west monsoon during May – October brings heavy rains, and the annual rainfall amounts to 1,500-2,000 mm. Tropical cyclones occur in the southwestern and northern parts.
Lowland rainforest dominated by dipterocarpus plants is the natural vegetation of the plains of southern Vietnam, while deciduous forest dominates further north. At altitudes above 1,000 m above sea level. the evergreen lowland rainforest is replaced by stock plants, magnolia plants and beeches, e.g. the genus Lithocaʹrpus. Several coniferous trees are also included in the vegetation of the mountain forests. Keteleeria [-le: ʹr-] roulaʹta, the genus Podocaʹrpus and pines. Mangroves with the genus Melaleuca [-le u ʹka] (family myrtle plants) occur, for example. in the Mekong Delta.
The flora in Vietnam encompasses over 7,000 species; about 10% are endemic, and most of these are found in the Hoang Liễn So迂n and Ngoc Linh mountains.
The fauna is rich but incompletely known. As recently as the beginning of the 1990s, at least two new ungulates, vuquangoxe and giant muntjak (Megamuntiʹacus vuquangeʹnsis) were found in science. In total, there are about 215 species of mammals, 535 species of nesting birds, 180 species of reptiles and 80 species of amphibians.
There are many species of predators, including Malay bear, collar bear, several species of badgers and eight species of cat animals, e.g. fish cat, leopard, tiger, tree leopard and Asian golden cat (Profeʹlis temmiʹnckii). Of twelve species of primates, three are gibbon species and costume monkeys (all very rare). About ten individuals of Javanese horn may be left in the Nam Bai Cat Tiễn National Park.
The bird fauna are similar to surrounding lands, with several species of cuckoo, rhino birds, beards, needle birds, flycatchers, timalias and bulbils, and in wetlands herons, storks and kingfishers. The crustacean fauna includes widely scattered groups such as python worms, cobras and wares, as well as typical groups for Southeast Asia such as palm worms, flying dragons and large-headed turtles. There are several species of avian frogs.
The freshwater fish fauna is rich, with predominantly carp fish, moths, gingerfish and greenfish, as well as for example. fighting fish, climbing fish and squirting fish.
In 2010, there were 14 national parks. The largest is Yok Don (1,155 km2). In total, 3% of the country’s area was protected.