Terrain shapes and bedrock
Three different natural regions can be distinguished in Niger. In the north, a highland is spreading, where the Aïr massif and the Djado plateau dominate with its peak heights of 1,900-2,000 meters above sea level. They are an offshoot of Ahaggar in Algeria and a link between this great massif and Tibesti in Chad. They consist of rocks and younger sedimentary rocks. The Talak area and Ténéré west and east of Aïr, respectively, are parts of the Sahara desert with large sandy fields, erg, as well as gravel and stone-covered plains.
In the south, a plateau region with a steppe character, part of the Sahel, is often exposed to desertification, among other things. due to the desert dunes moving over the dry pastures as a result of too hard grazing and no rain. The bedrock here is mostly from Mesozoic, the ground cover is thin and whitish with salt deposits in the surface. The southwestern part of Niger is a low plateau region crossed by the Niger River. Irrigated valleys (dallol and gulbi) are older inflows to Niger with water at depth. Even in the south-east a sink is spreading, in which part of Lake Chad lies. The soil consists of fertile black soil in the sinks and laterite soil on the plateaus.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Niger has a dry tropical climate, which is among the warmest on earth. In the south, the average temperature in January is 25 °C and in April 33 °C, in the north 17 and 33 °C respectively. The rainfall is on average 560 mm per year in the south, in the north below 100 mm. It mainly falls during June – October due to monsoon winds from the southwest. When they encounter the harmatta, the dry desert wind, severe storms often arise.
The vegetation is sparse throughout Niger, but in the southernmost parts there are some open forests with, among other things. trees from the genus Anogeissus [-ge in ʹ-] and Combreʹtum as well as the species Acaʹcia melliʹfera and Commiʹphora africaʹna. Large areas of the central parts consist of rocky and gravelly peninsula, where tamarisk, acacia, pea plant Retaʹma raetam [rɛ: ʹt-], ephedra, Fagoʹnia and the grass Ariʹstida, Enneapogon and Stipagroʹstisare common elements of flora. The northern parts are desert, which in some places are vegetation-free dunes. In the pure desert there are virtually no perennial plants, but only short-lived annuals, which bloom and put seeds in connection with any of the rare rains.
In desert areas there are predators caracal, fennel and golden shawl. Addax antelope has probably its strongest occurrence in northern Niger, and there may also be temporary sable ore here, which otherwise only remains in Chad. Male sheep, on the other hand, have a good strain. In the Sahel area and the few savannah areas in the southwest there are leopards, small populations of lions and possibly streaky hyena. There are also topi and deer deer gazelle (Gazeʹlla daʹma) as well as ground pigs and common pig. African elephant, giraffe and African buffalo have shrinking strains.
In the Niger River are found in the south hippopotamus, nil crocodile and temporary senegal manatee. The flood areas of the river are important resting places for migratory birds during parts of the year. Ostriches are rare in the Sahel area, and several species of stairs are found in the south. Of the other birds, there are five species of flying chickens in dry areas as well as weavers and two species of scavenger birds in savannah areas. The worm species black and white lip cobra (Naʹja melanoleuca [-le u ʹka]) is relatively common.
Niger had a national park in 2011: the Nigerian part of the large park “W” furthest in the southwest with forest saw and gallery forests, and among other things. hippopotamus and many cat species. There were also nature or fauna reserves.