Terrain shapes and bedrock
The interior of Romania is made up of a triangular mountain country, Transylvania, which in the east and south is bounded by the Carpathians. The rest of Romania’s surface consists of plains, mainly in the south and southeast, as well as in the west as a continuation of the Hungarian plain.
The Carpathians are an arcuate mountain range that reaches into Romania from the north. The eastern Carpathians are largely made up of dolomite and limestone, whose weathering forms and lowering fields give a karst-like touch to the landscape. Along its western edge stretches a series of volcanic canons such as Oaș and Harghita. The highest part is the Rodneiber mountains with a core of crystalline rocks and a strong relief with the top Pietrosu, 2,305 m above sea level. The Transylvanian Alps (South Carpathians) are built up of hard crystalline and volcanic rocks. The highest peak, Moldoveanu, in the Făgăraș Mountains is Romania’s highest, 2,543 meters above sea level. The southern slopes are cut by many tributaries to the Danube, including the Danube. Jiu, Olt, Argeș and Ialomița.
Plateau areas are widely used in Romania. The largest is the Trans-Silvanian Plateau at the angle between the East and South Carpathians, which are drained westwards by, among other things. the rivers Mureș and Someș. The Moldovan Plateau lies between the Siret and Prut rivers in the east at 500–700 m asl. Dobrogea in the southeast is a steppe plateau country.
The plains occupy about a third of Romania’s surface; the largest are in Valakiet in the south, which is covered by fertile loose soil. The Danube Delta is a water-soaked plain between the three outlet arms.
According to COUNTRYAAH, Romania has a warm-tempered continental climate that provides large temperature differences between summer and winter. The topography also entails large local variations. The summers are hot and the winters are cold. The rainfall is rather small and decreases towards the Black Sea where it is evenly distributed over the year. Inland has a rainfall maximum during early summer. During the winter, the precipitation falls mainly as snow that normally stays for at least one month, up to three months in the mountains. The Danube and other large rivers freeze during the winter.
A cold north- easterly wind, crivă vinter, blows in winter over eastern Romania and a hot south-westerly wind, austru, blows in over the western parts in the summer.
According to BRIDGAT, the annual average temperature varies between 11 °C in the south and east to 0 °C on the Carpathian peaks. In July, the average temperature is 18–24 °C, in January between 1 °C and –5 °C, with the lowest values in the central mountain country.
The average annual rainfall is 650 mm, the largest amount in early summer. In the Carpathians, however, falls up to 1,400 mm, while the coastal area on the Black Sea receives on average 400 mm.
In the highest locations in the Carpathians and Transylvania, vegetation is alpine. Here you will find many grasses, semi-grasses and weeds, but also eg. creeping boy, the mountain sip Dryʹas caucaʹsica, rhododendrons and tibia species. At lower altitudes, moist spruce and beech forests are spreading on the slopes, with elements of noble spruce and beech, in which white frost, Christmas rose, tooth root, lung herbs and herbs are included in the lush undergrowth.
In the low-lying areas below the mountains, dry forests dominate by oaks, lakes and deer ebooks. box with an undergrowth of e.g. starches, dry herbs and onion plants. Farthest to the east closest to the Black Sea is steppe vegetation, where wormwood, grater, weevils, carnations and spring grass (eg Stiʹpa ucraiʹnica in the far south-east) dominate. In some places, mainly along the Danube’s lower course, there are sandy areas with a flora composition similar to that found on sand dunes on the Atlantic or Mediterranean. Here you will find beach rye, sand pipes, beach quicksilver and beach cabbage.
Wildlife is rich because there are so many different habitats in the country; the Carpathians and the Black Sea region in particular are interesting. In the Carpathians, for example, wolf, brown bear, lion, European wildcat, tar, boar, king eagle, owl, white-backed and three-pointed woodpecker, masonry creeper, mountain whistle and mountain larch.
The Danube Delta is very bird-rich. Here are large colonies of dwarf cormorants, great cormorants, herons (all Europe’s species except cow herds), bronze sibs, spoon stork, pelican and – now very sparingly – mug-headed pelican. White stork is common everywhere. Divided and surrounding fields are also very important wintering sites for ducks and geese, among others. red-necked goose.
Over 100 species of fish have been found in deltaic and external waters of the Black Sea. moths and six species disturb; the latter are caught for both their meat and rum, from which caviar is prepared.
Among the most common frog and crawfish in the Black Sea area are sea frog, bell frog, deciduous frog, green spotted toad, Moorish land tortoise, marsh turtle, emerald lizard and snook.
In steppe areas and dry grasslands in the south-east there are, among other things. steppe hawk, large staircase, large foot, several species of larch, sisel, Romanian hamster (Mesocriceʹtus newtoʹni), tiger rills and golden shawls.
Romania has 11 national parks (2012), of which Domogled-Valea Cernei, Retezat and Rodneibergen are the largest. In addition, there are over 900 nature protected areas of other kinds. Of the land area, 7%, and of the sea area 33%, are protected in some form.